Printing technique using a planographic process in which prints are pulled on a special press from a flat stone or metal surface that has been chemically sensitised so that ink sticks only to the design areas, and is repelled by the non-image areas. Lithography was invented in 1798 in Solnhofen, Germany by Alois Senefider. The early history of lithography is dominated by great French artists such as Daumier and Delacroix, and later by Degas, Toulouse-Lautrec, Picasso, Braque and Miro.
A special photo-mechanical technique in which the image to be printed is transferred to the negative plates and printed onto papers. Offset lithograph is very well adapted to colour printing. In the process of producing limited editions the finest reprographic techniques are used to split the original painting into the four printing colours. High quality mechanical printing then enables the translation of this image onto paper. The plates are destroyed in order that the authenticity and integrity of the limited edition print is maintained.
Silkscreens or serigraphs as they are called in the USA are "original prints" and are a modern development of stencil printing. They are created by the long established method which, in simple terms, is a stencil printing process in which colour, usually paint or ink is passed through a fine screen onto paper The screen traditionally used comprises a fine weave silk, or similar, pulled over and secured to the frame. The silk is then masked excepting those areas where the paint is required to pass through. As each individual colour and shade requires a separate screen the whole process is lengthy and requires considerable skill. Slowly then, screen by screen, with precise alignment the final image is worked towards. The artist is involved during the creation of each edition approving various stages and often making changes and additions, adding to the originality of the final item.
Print intended for the artist's personal use. It is a common practice to reserve approximately ten percent of an edition as artist's proofs, although this figure can be higher. The artist's proof is sometimes referred to by its French name, epreuve d'artist (abbreviated to EA.). Artist's proofs can be distinguished by the AP or EA, commonly on the lower left corner of the work. Artist’s proofs are considered more desirable than the actual print runs themselves as they are not officially made available to the public.